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GMAT考试语文部分

2016-11-01 15:44

来源:未知

作者:tongdao

GMAT考试的语文部分包含三类多选题——阅读理解、逻辑性推理和句子改错。

考试的语文部分衡量你在阅读和理解书面材料,审视推理论据,以及改正书面材料使其符合标准书面英语规范的能力。

阅读理解

“阅读理解”的每一篇文章均不超过350个英文单词,内容涉及社科、理科及商科相关领域(营销、经济学、人力资源管理等)。

“阅读理解”考察你在理解、分析和应用书面形式的信息及概念方面的能力。你只要基于阅读材料中明示或暗示的内容即可回答所有问题,无需相关的特定知识。


“阅读理解”包含解释性、应用性和推理性问题。


阅读理解部分的问题测试你的理解、分析、运用文章中信息的能力。


这一部分考核的能力如下:

理解文中用词和句子的含义:这一部分的考题测试你对文章中用词的理解能力和你对英语语言的理解。
理解文中重要观点和概念之间的逻辑性关系:这类问题需要你能够分辨一个论据的优劣,评估论据与观点在文中的重要性。
据文中的事实和陈述推断:这部分的考题需要你考虑文中的事实陈述或信息,并在此基础上得出结论。
理解文本中出现的定量概念及其演化:这类问题测试了通过对数字数据和简易算术的解读后得出结论的能力。
例题如下,

Directions
The questions in this group are based on the content of a passage. After reading the passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions following the passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage.

Question
Schools expect textbooks to be a valuable source of information for students. My research suggests, however, that textbooks that address the place of Native Americans within the history of the United States distort history to suit a particular cultural value system. In some textbooks, for example, settlers are pictured as more humane, complex, skillful, and wise than Native Americans. In essence, textbooks stereotype and depreciate the numerous Native American cultures while reinforcing the attitude that the European conquest of the New World denotes the superiority of European cultures. Although textbooks evaluate Native American architecture, political systems, and homemaking, I contend that they do it from an ethnocentric, European perspective without recognizing that other perspectives are possible.

One argument against my contention asserts that, by nature, textbooks are culturally biased and that I am simply underestimating children's ability to see through these biases. Some researchers even claim that by the time students are in high school, they know they cannot take textbooks literally. Yet substantial evidence exists to the contrary. Two researchers, for example, have conducted studies that suggest that children's attitudes about particular cultures are strongly influenced by the textbooks used in schools. Given this, an ongoing, careful review of how school textbooks depict Native Americans is certainly warranted.

Which of the following would most logically be the topic of the paragraph immediately following the passage?

(A) specific ways to evaluate the biases of United States history textbooks
(B) the centrality of the teacher's role in United States history courses
(C) nontraditional methods of teaching United States history
(D) the contributions of European immigrants to the development of the United States
(E) ways in which parents influence children's political attitudes
Answer
(A)

Next Steps
For more sample Reading Comprehension questions, download the free GMATPrep test preparation software

逻辑性推理


“逻辑性推理”测试你在提出论据、评判论据及制定或判断一项行动计划方面的推理能力。题目的材料来自于不同领域。熟悉专业知识并非解答该类考题的前提条件。

测试哪些能力?


这个部分测试你在三方面的推理能力:

论据构建:这类问题需要你识别论据的基本结构、合理的结论、潜在的假设条件、论据充分的解释性假说,或是结构相似论据的相似性。
评判论据:这类问题可能会要求你分析所给的论据,识别强化或削弱观点的论据、论证时的推理错误,或是论证推进的方法。
制定并评估一个行动方案:这类问题可能会要求你区分不同的行动方案的合适度、有效性及不同行动计划的效率;区分强化或削弱预计行动计划结果的因素,或是提出的行动计划的潜在假设。
例题: Directions
For this question, select the best of the answer choices given.

Question
The cost of producing radios in Country Q is ten percent less than the cost of producing radios in Country Y. Even after transportation fees and tariff charges are added, it is still cheaper for a company to import radios from Country Q to Country Y than to produce radios in Country Y.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?

(A) Labor costs in Country Q are ten percent below those in Country Y.
(B) Importing radios from Country Q to Country Y will eliminate ten percent of the manufacturing jobs in Country Y.
(C) The tariff on a radio imported from Country Q to Country Y is less than ten percent of the cost of manufacturing the radio in Country Y.
(D) The fee for transporting a radio from Country Q to Country Y is more than ten percent of the cost of manufacturing the radio in Country Q.
(E) It takes ten percent less time to manufacture a radio in Country Q than it does in Country Y.
Answer
(C)

句子改错


在“句子改错”中,你会看到五个选项,并从中选出能最佳表达观点或关系的选项。“句子改错”要求你熟悉标准书面英语的体裁风格和语法规则,并测试你对错误用语或非有效表述的改进能力。

测试哪些能力?


这个部分测试你的语言熟练度的两大方面:

准确表述:准确的表述应该在语法和结构上都是有效合理的。它符合所有标准书面英语的规则。例如:名词动词一致性,代词一致性,代词格、和动词时态。准确的表述不应有悬挂结构,错置或不适当的修饰词,不符合语言习惯或不一致表达或平行结构的错误。
有效表达:一句有效的语句能够清楚、简明扼要且语法正确地表达概念或关系。这并不意味着单词最少或最简单的选项就是最佳答案;没有冗词及不必要的复杂表述的选项才是最佳。此外,一句有效的语句是措辞恰当的——单词的标准词典含义以及单词在语境中合适性。在评估语句中的用词时,你必须辨别用词是否选择得当、确切、且适宜上下文语境
例题:

Directions
This question presents a sentence, part of which or all of which is underlined. Beneath the sentence you will find five ways of phrasing the underlined part. The first of these repeats the original; the other four are different. If you think the original is best, choose the first answer; otherwise choose one of the others.

This question tests correctness and effectiveness of expression. In choosing your answer, follow the requirements of standard written English; that is, pay attention to grammar, choice of words, and sentence construction. Choose the answer that produces the most effective sentence; this answer should be clear and exact, without awkwardness, ambiguity, redundancy, or grammatical error.

Question
While larger banks can afford to maintain their own data-processing operations, many smaller regional and community banks are finding that the cost associated with upgrading data-processing equipment and with the development and maintenance of new products and technical staff are prohibitive.

(A) cost associated with
(B) costs associated with
(C) costs arising from
(D) cost of
(E) costs of

Answer
(B)

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